Primary Metallurgy and Metallurgical Processes – PM2P

The process step “primary metallurgy” involves the processing of iron ore to hot metal or sponge iron and the further treatment to crude steel. The focus of the research group PM2P is the optimization of energy and raw material efficiency as well as emission reduction in the steel industry. The results are used for the enhancement of existing processes as well as the development and implementation of new technologies.

Fields of Research



Fields of Research

Reduction Metallurgy

The conversion of iron oxides to metallic iron is the most energy intensive process step of all steel production routes, which are based on iron ore as ferrous feedstock. Projects of the research field are related to the characterization of ferrous burden materials and reducing agents for the blast furnace as well as direct and smelting reduction technologies in order to predict their behavior during processing. Furthermore, the use of hydrogen as a reducing agent for new direct reduction and direct steelmaking technologies are explored. The methods applied for that encompass advanced analytical methods for raw material characterization. Experimental simulation of ironmaking processes is a key competence, which is supported by mathematical simulation and modelling tools.

Current research projects

Characterization of Coke and Char

Sinter Characterization

Fine ore reduction with hydrogen by fluidized bed technology

Hydrogen plasma smelting reduction – Direct steel production

Steelmaking Metallurgy

The projects in this research field are related to crude steel production technologies and slags for steelmaking. A thermodynamic and kinetic model of the LD converter is under development, which allows the simulation not only of end blow temperature and composition of steel and slag, but also the behaviour of these parameters as well as dissolution and melting of charge materials during the heat. Experiments and thermodynamic modelling are applied for the investigation of the dissolution of slag forming agents containing CaO and MgO for primary and secondary metallurgical slags. New methods are under development for the determination of liquid slag properties in order to quantify physical and chemical data like diffusion coefficient and activity of elements.

Current research projects

Thermodynamic and kinetic modelling of the LD converter process

Dissolution behavior of slag forming agents in steelmaking slags

New methods for determination of liquid slags properties

Research Associates


Johannes Schenk

Univ.-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr.techn.
Primary Metallurgy and Metallurgical Processes


Elizaveta Cheremisina

Post-Doc in Area 2 - K1-MET GmbH

Michael Andreas Zarl

Dipl.-Ing. Dr.mont.
Hydrogen Plasma Smelting Reduction - Area 3 - K1-MET GmbH

Phone: +43 (0)3842-402-2276


Felix Hoffelner

PhD-candidate - Primary Metallurgy and Metallurgical Processes

Christian Illmaier

PhD-candidate - Hydrogen Plasma Smelting Reduction

Bernd Taferner

PhD-candidate - Primary Metallurgy and Metallurgical Processes

Technical Staff

Harald Mayrhofer

Student in Area 2 - K1-MET GmbH

Phone: +43 (0)3842-402-2236

Gerhard Winkler

Technical Department - Melting, Casting

Gilbert Neuwirth

Low Carbon Energy Systems - K1-MET GmbH

Phone: +43 (0)3842-402-2275

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