Born 1830 in Vienna.

1850-1852 Studies at the montanistic academy (Montan-Lehranstalt) in Leoben; afterwards assistant (k.k. Bergwesenspraktikant).

1856-1862 Leading engineer in k.k. steelwork in Reschitza (Banat).

1862-1866 (Oberhüttenmeister) chief foreman and academic for general metallurgy (Allgemeine Hüttenkunde) at the mining academy (Bergakademie) in Leoben.

1865 Promotion to full professorship for ferrous, non-ferrous metallurgy and Sudhüttenkunde in Leoben.

until 1874 Successful efforts along with director Tunner concerning the belonging of the mining academy (Bergakademie) in Leoben.

1875-1877 First director of the mining academy (Bergakademie) to be elected by the professorial council.

1895-1897 First rector elected by the professorial council of the mining academy (Bergakademie) that has been equated with the Technical Universities in 1894.

1899 Emeritus status.

Died 1903 in Pörtschach am Wörthersee (Carinthia).

Field of activity

Roasting of carbonic ore.

Furnace and production of raw iron.

  • “Beiträge zum Studium des Hochofen-Processes durch directe Bestimmungen”.
  • Useability of brown coal.

Metallurgical and technical questions of the Bessemer process (1864-1870).

Physical chemistry of the Siemens-Martin process and its practical accomplishment.

Studies about the Thomas process, mainly in its beginning (1879-1883).

Energy-related questions (e.g.: „Verwendung der Überhitze von Schweiß- und Puddelöfen“).

Material science of steel (e.g.: nickel-alloyed liner plates, „Mikrostruktur und Mikrophotographie“).

Reports about metallurgy at world expositions.

Detailed statistics of the production of raw iron and steel in the second half of the 19th century.

History of the mining academy (Bergakademie) Leoben 1840-1890.